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Growth and Development Theory: URIE BRONFENBRENNER (1917-2005)

Urie Bronfenbrenner founded the Ecological Systems Theory to understand the complex relationship between the infant, the family, and society and how they impact child development. The Ecological Systems Theory influenced the way psychologists and other social scientists approached the study of human beings in their environment. Before Bronfenbrenner, child psychologists studied the child, sociologists examined…

Growth and Development Theory: ARNOLD GESELL (1880 – 1961)

Prior to the early twentieth century, scientific observations of children were not common.  Arnold Gesell was one of the first psychologists to systematically describe children’s physical, social, and emotional achievements through a quantitative study of human development from birth through adolescence. He focused his research on the extensive study of a small number of children.…

Intellectual Development Theory: MARIA MONTESSORI (1870-1952)

§  Maria Montessori pioneered the Montessori educational method which is a child-centered, alternative education method based on her theories of child development. §  The method is primarily applied in preschool and elementary school settings, and it emphasizes self-directed activity on the part of the child, and observation on the part of the teacher. §  The…

Psychology Theorists: Lev Vygotsky, Robert Coles, Carol Gilligan

Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) Vygotsky’s basic premise was that social interaction plays an important role in intellectual development The child’s development appears twice – first on the social level, then on an individual level He believed  skills develop to a higher level with adult guidance or peer collaboration (social interaction) His theory attempts to…

Social Learning Theory: ALBERT BANDURA (1925-)

Canadian, born in northern Alberta Behaviourism theory of the time stated that one’s environment causes one’s behaviour Bandura agreed that environment causes behaviour, but he also believed that behaviour causes environment – he labelled this “reciprocal determinism” – that the world and a person’s behaviour cause each other He studied personality as it interacted with…

A New Capitalist Manifesto: Hernando de Soto & Mystery of Capital

De Soto and his Influence For many of the world’s poor, the promises of capitalism are nothing more than empty rhetoric. Latin American economist Hernando de Soto is one of those providing the fresh thinking that is required, with his focus on the legal aspects of economic development in emerging economies. De Soto has an…

Sigmund Freud and Psychosexual Development

Main Ideas: Sigmund Freud believed that hidden forces are the cause of human behavior, rather than the obvious forces. Unconscious thoughts reveal themselves in something called the free association, such as dreams where you talk and think freely. He believed that personality consists of three major systems. The Structure of Personality: id- this starts at…

Lawrence Kohlberg: The Six Stages of Moral Development

Kohlberg’s six stage theory was an extension of Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory (how people learn and use knowledge is affected by both social and psychological factors). Kohlberg extended on Piaget’s theory, proposing that moral development is a continual process that occurs throughout the lifespan (the stage you are in life determines your level of…

Erik Erikson and the 8 Stages of Development

Ÿ  Erikson’s theories are the best-known theories of personality and development. Ÿ  Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of predetermined stages. Ÿ  His theories are psychosocial, and not psychosexual. Ÿ  Describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. Ÿ  In each stage of development, Erikson described conflicts that act as turning…

Protein Structures: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary

Proteins are the largest and most varied class of biological molecules, and they show the greatest variety of structures.  Many have intricate three-dimensional folding patterns that result in a compact form, but others do not fold up at all (“natively unstructured proteins”) and exist in random conformations. The function of proteins depends on their structure,…