Tutor and Freelance Writer. Science Teacher and Lover of Essays. Article last reviewed: 2019 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2020 | Creative Commons 4.0

Energy Production: Primary production, Gross primary production, Net primary production

The term ecosystem was first used by Tansley (1935) to refer to all the components of an ecological system, biotic and abiotic, that influence the flow of energy and elements. The ecosystem concept integrates ecology with other disciplines such as geochemistry, hydrology, and atmospheric science. Primary production is the chemical energy generated by autotrophs during…

Honey & Antibiotic Properties: Manuka & Ulmo

Historically, honey has been used by humans to treat a variety of ailments through topical application, but only recently have the antiseptic and antibacterial properties of honey been chemically explained. Hydrogen peroxide is formed in a slow-release manner by the enzyme glucose oxidase present in honey. It becomes active only when honey is diluted, requires…

Mutualism and Commensalism

Positive interactions occur when neither species is harmed and the benefits of the interaction are greater than the costs for at least one species. Facilitation is a synonym for positive interactions. Mutualism: Mutually beneficial interaction between individuals of two species (+/+). Commensalism: Individuals of one species benefit, while individuals of the other species do not…

Ecology: Population Distribution and Abundance

Distribution: Geographic area where individuals of a species occur. Abundance: Number of individuals in a given area. Ecologists try to understand what factors determine the distribution and abundance of species. Populations are dynamic—distribution and abundance can change over time and space. ***Understanding the factors that influence these dynamics helps us manage populations for harvest or…

Life History: Diversity, Reproduction, K vs. R species, Tradeoffs

An organism’s life history is a record of events relating to its growth, development, reproduction, and survival. Life history characteristics include: Age and size at sexual maturity. Amount and timing of reproduction. Survival and mortality rates. Life History Diversity Individuals within a species show variation in life history traits due to genetic variation or environmental…

Evolution & Ecology: Natural selection, Gene flow, Speciation, Drift

Humans have a large impact on the environment—pollution, land use change, climate change, etc. We are just beginning to realize that we also cause evolutionary change, and the consequences of this. Ecology and evolution are strongly interconnected. What Is Evolution? Evolution can be viewed as genetic change over time or as a process of descent…

Coping with Environmental Variation: Temperature and Water

The physical environment influences an organism’s ecological success in two ways: Availability of energy and resources—impacts growth and reproduction. Extreme conditions can exceed tolerance limits and impact survival. Energy supply can influence an organism’s ability to tolerate environmental extremes. The actual geographic distribution of a species is often lower than potential distribution due to other…

Sexual Development in Adults: Singles, Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce

SEX AND SINGLE PERSON Sexual Development. Individuals continue to develop sexual identity and orientation. Some individuals continue to struggle with their homosexuality or bisexuality. People learn their sexual likes/ dislikes through experience. Some people seek out more sex with more new partners. Two issues about achieving sexual maturity: 1) Become responsible about sex (i.e contraception,…

Child Sexual Development: Infancy, Early Childhood, Adolescence

Adult reporting on childhood sexual experiences often forget; error prone. Interviewing a child about sexual experiences if met with great opposition; computer interviews are used. INFANCY (0-2 YRS) Boy have been shown to have reflex boners during prenatal period and girls have vaginal lubrication after brith. First intimate relationship child has is with mother (i.e…

Sex Psychology: Sexual dysfunction & Sexual Disorders

Sexual dysfunction: problem with sexual response that causes significant psychological distress or interpersonal difficulty. Four types of Sexual Disorders: 1) Desire Disorder: hypoactive sexual desire, sexual aversion 2) Arousal Disorders: erectile disorder female sexual arousal disorder 3) Orgasmic Disorders: rapid ejaculation, male orgasmic disorder, female orgasmic disorder. 4) Sexual pain Disorders: dyspareunia, vaginismus **sexual disorders…

Protestant Reformation in England: Influences & Causes

There were many factors that influenced the Protestant Reformation in England, such as the political climate of Roman Catholic Church corruption and the increasing discontent among both nobles and laymen. But the most important factor was King Henry VIII’s pervasive self-serving attitude which profoundly impacted, and ultimately caused the Reformation of England. Anne Boleyn’s influence…

The Bubble Act: Its Creation and Effect on English Business

In the year 1719, the English public debt was an overwhelming problem that hindered the Parliament as well as the Crown’s ability to effectively manage England’s finances. The manner in which government taxes were collected was inefficient and they often attempted to collect taxes several years in advance in an attempt gain control over the…